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V卡宴(虚拟现实)开发财富汇总

2019年2月28日 - www6165com

1、前言

上一篇讲了怎么编写翻译安装BlueZ-5,本篇主要在于玩BlueZ,用命令行去操作BLE设备:

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Daydream

提示:不是全方位的Android设备都提供了Bluetooth作用。

剧中人物和天职

Here are the roles and responsibilities that apply when an Android
device interacts with a BLE device:
此地是Android设备与BLE设备交互时适用的剧中人物和天职:

To understand the distinction, imagine that you have an Android phone
and an activity tracker that is a BLE device. The phone supports the
central role; the activity tracker supports the peripheral role (to
establish a BLE connection you need one of each—two things that only
support peripheral couldn’t talk to each other, nor could two things
that only support central).
为了明白这一个特点,假如你持有一个Android手提式有线电话机和三个BLE活动追踪器设备。手提式有线电话机担任中心剧中人物;活动追踪器担任外设剧中人物(为了树立BLE连接,你必要一些的这样的装备。只援助外设剧中人物的八个装备不能够相互通讯,同样,仅援救中心剧中人物的多个设备也无法相互通讯)

Once the phone and the activity tracker have established a connection,
they start transferring GATT metadata to one another. Depending on the
kind of data they transfer, one or the other might act as the server.
For example, if the activity tracker wants to report sensor data to the
phone, it might make sense for the activity tracker to act as the
server. If the activity tracker wants to receive updates from the phone,
then it might make sense for the phone to act as the server.
手机和活动追踪器一旦创制了连年,他们就起始互相传输GATT元数据。依赖于他们传输的数额,当中的三个伊始充当服务器。例如:借使运动跟踪器希望将传感器数据报告给手提式无线电话机,那么活动跟踪器恐怕会担任服务器。如何运动追踪器想要从手提式无线话机接收更新,那么手提式有线电话机或然会担任服务器。

In the example used in this document, the Android app (running on an
Android device) is the GATT client. The app gets data from the GATT
server, which is a BLE heart rate monitor that supports the Heart Rate
Profile. But you could alternatively design your Android app to play the
GATT server role. See BluetoothGattServer for more information.
其一文书档案中应用的例证中,Android
APP(运转在Android设备上)是GATT客户端。App从一个GATT服务器中获取数据,GATT服务器是八个提供心跳配置文件的BLE心跳检查和测试器。但是你也足以设计你的安卓App充当GATT服务器的剧中人物。有关详细音信,请查看蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )GattServer。

③ 、bluetoothctl——NB的新工具

指令行进入bluetoothctl操作环境([\#6](https://mcuoneclipse.com/2016/12/19/tutorial-ble-pairing-the-raspberry-pi-3-model-b-with-hexiwear/))

bluetoothctl

自家在表哥大上用lightblue模拟二个BLE设备ty_prod,之后对其service进行改动,调用scan
on实行检索照旧老的,
最终发现要先用remove移除以前的配备,之后再scan就会产出[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod设备
注: 用lightblue模拟的设备的MAC不是稳定的
注:
我发未来lightblue中不管怎么模拟BLE设备,一旦被连上搜索到的service都以IPone的

[bluetooth]# devices
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ty_prod
Device 58:71:33:00:00:24 Bluetooth Keyboard
Device 00:1A:7D:DA:71:0A SHEN-PC
Device 94:87:E0:B3:AC:6F Mi Phone
[bluetooth]# remove 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 
...
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod
[bluetooth]# scan off
...
Discovery stopped
[bluetooth]# connect 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
Attempting to connect to 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
[CHG] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F Connected: yes
Connection successful
[ty_prod]

索性就用苹果手提式有线电话机自带的劳动做测试了~

[ty_prod]# info
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 (public)
    Name: tuya_mdev_test
    Alias: tuya_mdev_test
    Appearance: 0x0040
    Icon: phone
    Paired: yes
    Trusted: no
    Blocked: no
    Connected: yes
    LegacyPairing: no
    UUID: Fax                       (00001111-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Access Profile    (00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Attribute Profile (00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Current Time Service      (00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Device Information        (0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Battery Service           (0000180f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (7905f431-b5ce-4e99-a40f-4b1e122d00d0)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (89d3502b-0f36-433a-8ef4-c502ad55f8dc)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (9fa480e0-4967-4542-9390-d343dc5d04ae)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (d0611e78-bbb4-4591-a5f8-487910ae4366)
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no

我们用Current 提姆e Service,列出具有attributes操作如下:

[tuya_mdev_test]# menu gatt
[tuya_mdev_test]# list-attributes 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
...
Primary Service
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time Service
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0045
    00002a0f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Local Time Information
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
    00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time
Descriptor
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042/desc0044
    00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Client Characteristic Configuration
...

上面Current Time Service对应的服务如下图:

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笔者们挑选Current Time实行操作UUID:0x2A2B

[ty_prod]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042 Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$....      
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$.... 
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Current Time
    UUID: 00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 2e 01 03 f5 02                    ..........      
    Notifying: yes
    Flags: read
    Flags: notify

读出结果大约意思应该是:2018-9/5-1:36:17 周三

读取一下0x180A的Device Information:

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0006/char0007]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Model Number String
    UUID: 00002a24-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047
    Flags: read
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a Value:
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2       
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2    

本来写、使能notify也很简单,看help即可。最终断开连接、并脱离!!!

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# disconnect 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
Attempting to disconnect from 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
Successful disconnected
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# quit

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6.与BLE设备调换。比如类似传感器,心率监视器,健身设施,等等

Closing the Client App

星期三, 05. 九月 2018 02:03上午 – beautifulzzzz

googlevr

类:

BluetoothA2dp:那么些类提供控制BluetoothA2DP profile的公共APIs

BluetoothAdapter:代表当地设备的Bluetoothadapter.
BluetoothAssignedNumbers:Bluetooth分配号码

BluetoothClass:代表三个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )类。它形容叙述了配备的形似特征(characteristics)和能力(capabilities)

BluetoothClass.Device:定义全部设备类的常量

BluetoothClass.Device.Major:定义全部根本设施类的常量

BluetoothClass.Service:定义全部服务类的常量

BluetoothDevice:代表三个远道蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备

=============================================================================================

BluetoothGatt:蓝牙GATT
Profile的公共APIs

BluetoothGattCallback:那几个抽象类用于落到实处蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Gatt回调

BluetoothGattCharacteristic:代表三个BluetoothGATT Characteristic.

                                              贰个GATT
Characteristic是用来组织贰个GATT
service,BluetoothGattService的主导数据成分

BluetoothGattDescriptor:代表1个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )GATT Descriptor.

                                           GATT Descriptor包蕴1个GATT
characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic的额外音讯和属性.

Classes


BluetoothA2dp This class provides the public APIs to control the Bluetooth A2DP profile. 
BluetoothAdapter Represents the local device Bluetooth adapter. 
BluetoothAssignedNumbers Bluetooth Assigned Numbers. 
BluetoothClass Represents a Bluetooth class, which describes general characteristics and capabilities of a device. 
BluetoothClass.Device Defines all device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Device.Major Defines all major device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Service Defines all service class constants. 
BluetoothDevice Represents a remote Bluetooth device. 
BluetoothGatt Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile. 
BluetoothGattCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGatt callbacks. 
BluetoothGattCharacteristic Represents a Bluetooth GATT Characteristic

A GATT characteristic is a basic data element used to construct a GATT service,BluetoothGattService

BluetoothGattDescriptor Represents a Bluetooth GATT Descriptor

GATT Descriptors contain additional information and attributes of a GATT characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic

BluetoothGattServer Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile server role. 
BluetoothGattServerCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGattServer callbacks. 
BluetoothGattService Represents a Bluetooth GATT Service

Gatt Service contains a collection of BluetoothGattCharacteristic, as well as referenced services. 

BluetoothHeadset Public API for controlling the Bluetooth Headset Service. 
BluetoothHealth Public API for Bluetooth Health Profile. 
BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration The Bluetooth Health Application Configuration that is used in conjunction with the BluetoothHealthclass. 
BluetoothHealthCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothHealth callbacks. 
BluetoothManager High level manager used to obtain an instance of an BluetoothAdapter and to conduct overall Bluetooth Management. 
BluetoothServerSocket A listening Bluetooth socket. 
BluetoothSocket A connected or connecting Bluetooth socket. 

BluetoothGattServer:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )GATT Profileserver角色的公共APIs.

BluetoothGattServerCallback:这一个抽象类用于落到实处BluetoothGattServer回调.

BluetoothGattService:代表1个蓝牙5.0( Bluetooth® )GATT Service.

================================================================================

BluetoothHeadset:控制蓝牙5.0动圈耳机(Headset)服务的公共API.

BluetoothHealth:蓝牙Health
Profile的公共API.

BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration:The
Bluetooth Health Application
Configuration(配置)用来与BluetoothHealth类结合.

BluetoothHealthCallback:用于落到实处BluetoothHealth回调的抽象类

BluetoothManager:用来赢得BluetoothAdapter的实例的老板,实行宏观的蓝牙5.0管理

BluetoothServerSocket:3个监听蓝牙( Bluetooth® )的socket

BluetoothSocket:三个已两次三番或正在连接的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )socket.

Roles and Responsibilities

LINKS

[1].Cannot connect to BLE device on Raspberry
Pi
[2].Invalid file descriptor gatttool of bluez
5.32
[3].Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[4].Reverse Engineering a Bluetooth Low Energy Light
Bulb
[5].Doing Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[6].Tutorial: BLE Pairing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B with
Hexiwear

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@beautifulzzzz
智能硬件、物联网,热爱技术,关注产品
博客:http://blog.beautifulzzzz.com
园友交流群:414948975

Difference_between_ATW_ASW_and_Reprojection 

For more information about Classic Bluetooth, see
the Bluetooth guide.
For more information about Bluetooth Low Energy, see the Bluetooth Low
Energy (BLE)
guide.

最首要术语和概念

Here is a summary of key BLE terms and concepts:
以下是有关BLE的要紧术语和定义的摘要

二 、gatttool —— 老工具趟坑

刚开始跟着 Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
操作gatttool,发现坑太多(主因是工具老了):

采用sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I去连接
发现会报错:Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
最后参考LINK-11发现需求加random选项([\#1](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32947807/cannot-connect-to-ble-device-on-raspberry-pi))

➜  ~  sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> exit
➜  ~  sudo gatttool  -t random  -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Connection successful
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> 
(gatttool:3104): GLib-WARNING **: Invalid file descriptor.

过一次会10S自动断开,网上说那些工具老了,不提议用了([\#2](https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg67617.html)):

There are new tools to use with GATT, bluetoothctl/bluetoothd is the preferred since with that you have GAP, etc, 
but if want to use a stand alone tool then I suggest you use btgatt-client.

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依据骁龙
V昂科威 SDK的V翼虎图形优化

闭馆客户端app

Once your app has finished using a BLE device, it should call close() so
the system can release resources appropriately:
一经你的应用程序完结使用BLE设备,它应该调用close(),以便系统能够正确释放财富:

public void close() {
    if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
        return;
    }
    mBluetoothGatt.close();
    mBluetoothGatt = null;
}

后记:本文翻译自google开发者网站。链接如下:
https://developer.android.google.cn/guide/topics/connectivity/bluetooth-le.html
欢迎转发,但请拥戴小编工作,留下本文后记
作者:Jaesoon
邮箱:jayyuz@163.com
日期:2017-09-17

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com.google.android.vr.home

2.为配对的Bluetooth设备查询当地蓝牙5.0适配器

接收GATT通知

It’s common for BLE apps to ask to be notified when a particular
characteristic changes on the device. This snippet shows how to set a
notification for a characteristic, using the
setCharacteristicNotification() method:
当设备上1个一定的特色发生变更时,BLE应用去须求被通报很普遍。那段代码显示了哪些通过选用setCharacteristicNotification()方法,去为2个特征设置一个公告:

private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic;
boolean enabled;
...
mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);
...
BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
        UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);

Once notifications are enabled for a characteristic, an
onCharacteristicChanged() callback is triggered if the characteristic
changes on the remote device:
假定三个表征被使能文告,若是远程设备上的那么些特点产生了变更,八个onCharacteristicChanged()回调被触发。

@Override
// Characteristic notification
public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
        BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}

Daydream
Controller手柄数据的剖析

android.bluttooth

Connecting to a GATT Server

连接GATT服务器

The first step in interacting with a BLE device is connecting to it—
more specifically, connecting to the GATT server on the device. To
connect to a GATT server on a BLE device, you use the connectGatt()
method. This method takes three parameters: a Context object,
autoConnect (boolean indicating whether to automatically connect to the
BLE device as soon as it becomes available), and a reference to a
BluetoothGattCallback:
与BLE设备的互相的第2步是连接受它-更有血有肉的说,连接在那个BLE设备上的GATT服务器。为了连接上在那个BLE设备上的GATT服务器,你能够行使connectGatt()方法。这一个措施有八个参数:贰个上下文对象,是还是不是自动延续(3个布尔值,申明只要那一个BLE设备是可以取得的,是或不是自动的连天上它),2个指向Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )GattCallback的引用。

mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);

This connects to the GATT server hosted by the BLE device, and returns a
BluetoothGatt instance, which you can then use to conduct GATT client
operations. The caller (the Android app) is the GATT client. The
BluetoothGattCallback is used to deliver results to the client, such as
connection status, as well as any further GATT client operations.
那会连接受由BLE设备管理的GATT服务器,并赶回一个蓝牙5.0Gatt实例,然后你能够利用它来拓展GATT客户端操作。调用者(Android
app)是GATT客户端。蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )GattCallback用来传送结果给客户端,例如连接情形,以及其余更进一步的GATT客户端操作。

In this example, the BLE app provides an activity
(DeviceControlActivity) to connect, display data, and display GATT
services and characteristics supported by the device. Based on user
input, this activity communicates with a Service called
BluetoothLeService, which interacts with the BLE device via the Android
BLE API:
本条例子中,那些BLE应用提供1个移动(DeviceControlActivity)用于连接装置,突显由装备提供的数码,GATT服务和天性。基于用户输入,这一个运动与3个名为蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )LeService的劳动通讯,该服务通过Android
BLE API与BLE设备举办交互:

// A service that interacts with the BLE device via the Android BLE API.
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT);

    // Various callback methods defined by the BLE API.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback =
            new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status,
                int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // New services discovered
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // Result of a characteristic read operation
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }
     ...
    };
...
}

When a particular callback is triggered, it calls the appropriate
broadcastUpdate() helper method and passes it an action. Note that the
data parsing in this section is performed in accordance with the
Bluetooth Heart Rate Measurement profile specifications:
当特定的回调被触发时,它调用相应的broadcastUpdate()协助方法并传递二个动作。请留意,本节中的数据解析是依据蓝牙( Bluetooth® )心率度量配置文件规范执行的:

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                             final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

    // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. Data
    // parsing is carried out as per profile specifications.
    if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
        int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
        int format = -1;
        if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
        } else {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
        }
        final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
        Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
    } else {
        // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data)
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" +
                    stringBuilder.toString());
        }
    }
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

Back in DeviceControlActivity, these events are handled by a
BroadcastReceiver:
再次来到DeviceControlActivity,这个事件都被一个布罗兹castReceiver接收处理:

// Handles various events fired by the Service.
// ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
// ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device. This can be a
// result of read or notification operations.
private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        final String action = intent.getAction();
        if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = true;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = false;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
            clearUI();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.
                ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
            // Show all the supported services and characteristics on the
            // user interface.
            displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
            displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));
        }
    }
};

 

4.接连在任何装置上钦点的sockets

Key Terms And Concepts

Timewarp

To perform Bluetooth communication using these APIs, an application must
declare the BLUETOOTH permission. Some additional functionality, such
as requesting device discovery, also requires
the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission.

Setting Up BLE

设置BLE
Before your application can communicate over BLE, you need to verify
that BLE is supported on the device, and if so, ensure that it is
enabled. Note that this check is only necessary if
<uses-feature…/> is set to false.
在您接纳能够透过BLE通讯从前,你须求表明那个装置是不是帮衬BLE,要是能够,确认BLE是使能的。需求留意的是惟有当<uses-feature…/>设置为false这么些是检查要求的

If BLE is not supported, then you should gracefully disable any BLE
features. If BLE is supported, but disabled, then you can request that
the user enable Bluetooth without leaving your application. This setup
is accomplished in two steps, using the BluetoothAdapter.
只要BLE不被帮忙,则你供给优雅的除能全部的BLE个性。假设BLE被协助,可是被除能了,则你要求请求用户使能蓝牙( Bluetooth® )而不偏离的选用。该装置使用蓝牙( Bluetooth® )艾达pter在多少个步骤中形成。

  1. Get the BluetoothAdapter
    获取BluetoothAdapter
    The BluetoothAdapter is required for any and all Bluetooth activity.
    The BluetoothAdapter represents the device’s own Bluetooth adapter
    (the Bluetooth radio). There’s one Bluetooth adapter for the entire
    system, and your application can interact with it using this object.
    The snippet below shows how to get the adapter. Note that this
    approach uses getSystemService() to return an instance of
    BluetoothManager, which is then used to get the adapter. Android 4.3
    (API Level 18) introduces BluetoothManager:
    装有的BluetoothActivity中都亟待蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器。Bluetooth适配器表示了这些设备自带的蓝牙5.0适配器(Bluetooth有线电)。整个体系有3个蓝牙5.0适配器,你的行使能够透过这么些指标和它交互。上面包车型地铁代码片段呈现了什么获取这么些适配器。供给注意的是其一法子运用getSystemService()去得到BluetoothManager的一个实例,然后用于获取适配器。Android
    4.3(API Level 18)介绍了蓝牙Manager。

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    ...
    // Initializes Bluetooth adapter.
    final BluetoothManager bluetoothManager =
            (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
    mBluetoothAdapter = bluetoothManager.getAdapter();
    
  2. Enable Bluetooth
    使能蓝牙( Bluetooth® )
    Next, you need to ensure that Bluetooth is enabled. Call isEnabled()
    to check whether Bluetooth is currently enabled. If this method
    returns false, then Bluetooth is disabled. The following snippet
    checks whether Bluetooth is enabled. If it isn’t, the snippet
    displays an error prompting the user to go to Settings to enable
    Bluetooth:
    接下去,你供给承认蓝牙5.0是使能的。调用isEnable()去反省是还是不是蓝牙( Bluetooth® )脚下是不是使能。若是那几个艺术重回false,则蓝牙( Bluetooth® )是除能的。接下来的代码片段检查是否Bluetooth是是能的。假使没有使能,代码片段会显得八个用户去设置开启Bluetooth的失实提醒。

    // Ensures Bluetooth is available on the device and it is enabled. If not,
    // displays a dialog requesting user permission to enable Bluetooth.
    if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || !mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
        Intent enableBtIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
        startActivityForResult(enableBtIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
    }
    

Note: The REQUEST_ENABLE_BT constant passed to
startActivityForResult(android.content.Intent, int) is a
locally-defined integer (which must be greater than 0) that the system
passes back to you in your onActivityResult(int, int,
android.content.Intent) implementation as the requestCode parameter.

注意:传送给startActivityForResult()的常量REQUEST_ENABLE_BT是二个地点定义的平头(必须大于0),这几个平头系统会实现为requestCode参数,在您的onActivityResult()方法中,回传给您。

ATW

3.建立RFCOMM channels/sockets.

Reading BLE Attributes

读取BLE属性

Once your Android app has connected to a GATT server and discovered
services, it can read and write attributes, where supported. For
example, this snippet iterates through the server’s services and
characteristics and displays them in the UI:
万一您的Android应用连接到GATT服务器并发现了劳动,要是GATT服务器协助,它就足以读取和写入属性了。例如:这一片段代码遍历了那些服务器的劳动和特色,,并将其出示在UI中:

public class DeviceControlActivity extends Activity {
    ...
    // Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT
    // Services/Characteristics.
    // In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the
    // ExpandableListView on the UI.
    private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {
        if (gattServices == null) return;
        String uuid = null;
        String unknownServiceString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_service);
        String unknownCharaString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
        ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData =
                new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
        ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
                = new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
        mGattCharacteristics =
                new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();

        // Loops through available GATT Services.
        for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
            HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData =
                    new HashMap<String, String>();
            uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
            currentServiceData.put(
                    LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.
                            lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
            currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
            gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);

            ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
                    new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
            List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
                    gattService.getCharacteristics();
            ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
                    new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();
           // Loops through available Characteristics.
            for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic :
                    gattCharacteristics) {
                charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
                HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData =
                        new HashMap<String, String>();
                uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
                currentCharaData.put(
                        LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid,
                                unknownCharaString));
                currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
                gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);
            }
            mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
            gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
         }
    ...
    }
...
}

7.作为GATTclient或GATT服务端

Finding BLE Devices

寻找BLE设备

To find BLE devices, you use the startLeScan() method. This method takes
a BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback as a parameter. You must implement
this callback, because that is how scan results are returned. Because
scanning is battery-intensive, you should observe the following
guidelines:
要寻找BLE设备,你能够利用startLeScan()方法。那个点子包括一个蓝牙5.0Adapter.LeScanCallback作为参数。你必须求促成这一个回调,因为这是怎么回到扫描结果的(因为扫描结果是透过那些重返的)。因为扫描是电池密集型的,你要求根据以下的轨道:

The following snippet shows how to start and stop a scan:
下边包车型大巴代码片段显示了如何起首和平息扫描:

/**
 * Activity for scanning and displaying available BLE devices.
 */
public class DeviceScanActivity extends ListActivity {

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private boolean mScanning;
    private Handler mHandler;

    // Stops scanning after 10 seconds.
    private static final long SCAN_PERIOD = 10000;
    ...
    private void scanLeDevice(final boolean enable) {
        if (enable) {
            // Stops scanning after a pre-defined scan period.
            mHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    mScanning = false;
                    mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
                }
            }, SCAN_PERIOD);

            mScanning = true;
            mBluetoothAdapter.startLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        } else {
            mScanning = false;
            mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        }
        ...
    }
...
}

If you want to scan for only specific types of peripherals, you can
instead call startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),
providing an array of UUID objects that specify the GATT services your
app supports.
一经您想扫描特定项目标外设,你能够轮换调用startLeScan(UUID[],
BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),提供贰个一定的您的app援救的GATT服务UUID设备数组。

Here is an implementation of the BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback, which
is the interface used to deliver BLE scan results:
那边有八个蓝牙艾达pter.LeScanCallback的兑现,它是多个接口,用来传输BLE扫描结果:

private LeDeviceListAdapter mLeDeviceListAdapter;
...
// Device scan callback.
private BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback mLeScanCallback =
        new BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback() {
    @Override
    public void onLeScan(final BluetoothDevice device, int rssi,
            byte[] scanRecord) {
        runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
           @Override
           public void run() {
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.addDevice(device);
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
           }
       });
   }
};

Note: You can only scan for Bluetooth LE devices or scan for Classic
Bluetooth devices, as described in Bluetooth. You cannot scan for both
Bluetooth LE and classic devices at the same time.

留意:你能够扫描低耗电Bluetooth设备或经典蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备,如Bluetooth所述。你无法而且扫视低耗能Bluetooth设备和经文蓝牙5.0设备。

Daydream Performance
HUD

接口:

BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback澳门金沙网投平台,
:用来提供LE扫描结果的回调接口

BluetoothProfile:Bluetooth
Profiles的公共APIs

BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Profile
IPC client与service的连日和断开时的三个通报接口

Receiving GATT Notifications

Bluetooth

Provides classes that manage Bluetooth functionality, such as scanning
for devices, connecting with devices, and managing data transfer between
devices. The Bluetooth API supports both “Classic Bluetooth” and
Bluetooth Low Energy.

BLE 权限


In order to use Bluetooth features in your application, you must declare
the Bluetooth permission BLUETOOTH. You need this permission to perform
any Bluetooth communication, such as requesting a connection, accepting
a connection, and transferring data.
为了在您的使用中使用Bluetooth特色,你必供给表达Bluetooth权限 BLUETOOTH
。你要此权限才能履行此外Bluetooth通讯,如:请求三个总是,接收多个总是,和传输数据。

If you want your app to initiate device discovery or manipulate
Bluetooth settings, you must also declare the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
permission. Note: If you use the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission, then you
must also have the BLUETOOTH permission.
只要您想要你的app运营设备发现或决定蓝牙5.0设置,你无法不也要说明BLUETOOTH_ADMIN 权限。注意:假诺您用了 BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
权限,则还非得有 BLUETOOTH 权限。

Declare the Bluetooth permission(s) in your application manifest file.
For example:
注解Bluetooth权限在您的选拔manifest文件,例如:

<uses-permission android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH”/>
<uses-permission
android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN”/>

If you want to declare that your app is available to BLE-capable devices
only, include the following in your app’s manifest:
一经你想要证明你的app仅扶助有BLE效能的设施,在你的app的manifest中填上如下内容:

<uses-feature android:name=”android.hardware.bluetooth_le”
android:required=”true”/>
However, if you want to make your app available to devices that don’t
support BLE, you should still include this element in your app’s
manifest, but set required=”false”. Then at run-time you can determine
BLE availability by using PackageManager.hasSystemFeature():
接下来,若是您想要你的app能够被不协理BLE的装备获得,你照样亟待蕴涵那一个成分在您的app的manifest文件中,不过,必要安装required为false。然后在您的代码运行时,你能够通过运用确认PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()方法来认同BLE是不是可获取。

// Use this check to determine whether BLE is supported on the device. Then
// you can selectively disable BLE-related features.
if (!getPackageManager().hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE)) {
    Toast.makeText(this, R.string.ble_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    finish();
}

Note: LE Beacons are often associated with location. In order to use
BluetoothLeScanner without a filter, you must request the user’s
permission by declaring either the ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or
ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION permission in your app’s manifest file. Without
these permissions, scans won’t return any results.

留意:LE信标平日与地方相关联。
为了在没有过滤器的境况下利用蓝牙5.0LeScanner,您必须透过申明应用程序的清单文件中的ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION或ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION权限来呼吁用户的权杖。

Nordic SDK and
Documentation

Note: Not all Android-powered devices provide Bluetooth
functionality.

Use the
Daydream View controller and
headset

蓝牙( Bluetooth® ) APIs 能够使得应用拥有上面成效:

EGL10

Interfaces


BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback Callback interface used to deliver LE scan results. 
BluetoothProfile Public APIs for the Bluetooth Profiles. 
BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener An interface for notifying BluetoothProfile IPC clients when they have been connected or disconnected to the service. 

澳门金沙国际娱乐,FTS4BT™
Bluetooth® Protocol Analyzer and Packet
Sniffer

5.与其余装备之间数据传输

 

应用这几个APIs来终止蓝牙( Bluetooth® )之间的调换,贰个应用程序必须证明BLUETOOTH权限。对于一些额外的功用。如请求设备发现,也不可能不BLUETOOTH_ADMIN权限。

 

The Bluetooth APIs let applications:

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